Ethiopia is now the second most populous country in Africa, with more than million inhabitants, after Nigeria, million. On both western and eastern sides of the continent, these two countries present situations of religious plurality reflective of the variety of historical dynamics of Christianity and Islam in Africa. In Nigeria the population is almost equally divided between Christians in the southern tropical humid regions and Muslims in the northern, drier, parts. The Christian faith was introduced by missionaries who went along the processes of settlement of European colonial rule, whereas Islam was established in earlier times, since the 11th century, along the trade and slavery roads going through the Sahelian southern fringe of the Sahara desert 1. In Ethiopia, on which this article will focus, a general correlation between climatic zones and the distribution of religions also exists between the watered and agricultural highlands, forming the historical stronghold of the Orthodox Christian polities, and the arid lowlands basins of the Nile and the Red Sea, where Islam had spread. Local exceptions to this general pattern are many, however. A large Muslim population is concentrated in the densely forested highlands of the southwestern parts of the country. Scattered Christian populations live in the lowlands, either because they have been displaced through resettlement programs since the s or because they have settled more voluntarily in the growing network of roads and cities throughout the country.
Interfaith marriage in Christianity
Are Muslim men allowed to marry women from another faith other than Islam, Christianity and Judaism? It is permissible for a Muslim man to marry a Christian or a Jewish woman without the need for her to convert to Islam at any time. Although this is permissible, it is not encouraged because interfaith marriages are likely to run into problems.
Most Muslim women in Egypt wear hijab and therefore, the others who do not and persuade her to marry him, or to convert to Islam, a phenomenon The Coptic Orthodox Church is not different from society and the state in.
Christian pastors and Muslim imams have come together to draw up guidelines detailing advice on how to deal with inter-faith marriages. Although marrying between faiths is entirely legal in Britain, couples often face resistance and hostility, both from family members and religious leaders. Occasionally both Muslims and Christians feel pressure to convert to another’s faith in order to avoid fallouts and ostracism.
The new guidelines by the Christian-Muslim forum reinforce the need for religious leaders to accept inter-faith marriages and warn that no one should ever feel forced to convert. The publication of the document, which will receive a high-profile launch at Westminster Abbey today, is significant because those supporting it include imams from the more orthodox Islamic schools of thought and evangelical Christians.
Among those who have signed up to the document include Sheikh Ibrahim Mogra, a prominent Leicester-based imam from the conservative Deobandi school, the Right Rev Paul Hendricks, associate bishop of Southwark Catholic Archdiocese, and Amra Bone, one of the only women in the country to sit in a Sharia court.
Marriage to a Non-Christian
A Christian religious leader who wished to remain anonymous told ACN that Christians who are poor were especially targeted. He referred to one diocese where Muslims owned the marble and gold mines and people were only given jobs if they were Muslim. He also said that with money from Saudi Arabia new mosques were being built in areas where it was difficult to get permission to build new churches, adding that he was afraid that Ethiopia — with a tradition of Muslims and Christians living together peacefully — was heading in the direction of Egypt and other countries that have seen an increase in the influence of foreign Islamic hard-liners.
Also, Mahibere Kidusan, a conservative movement within the Church, has been posing a growing threat to non-traditional Protestants. The movement has been accused of wanting to control government policies to restrict the activities of other religions. Most Christians in Ethiopia belong to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, one of the oldest churches in Africa, dating back to the fourth century.
Approximately 90 percent of Christians belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church, according Christian and Jewish women need not convert to marry Muslim men.
Throughout the nearly fifteen centuries of Muslim-Christian encounter, individual adherents of both traditions often have lived peaceably with each other. At the same time, Muslim expansion into Christian territories and Christian imperialism in Muslims lands have fostered fear and ill-will on both sides.
Repercussions from the Crusades continue to resound in the contemporary rhetoric employed by defenders of both faiths. In recent years relations between Muslims and Christians across the globe have become increasingly polarized, fanned by anti-Islamic rhetoric and fearmongering. Old sectarian rivalries play out with serious consequences for minority groups, both Christian and Muslim.
Conflicts in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and elsewhere for much of the 20th century were often labeled as ethnic, political, or ideological perpetuations of long-standing struggles over land, power, and influence. These conflicts now tend to be labeled in accord with the specifically religious affiliation of their participants. It is difficult to imagine a time in history at which there is greater need for serious interfaith engagement than now.
I think it is important to call special attention to this part of the text, because this paragraph is perhaps the most effective discussion of Islam I have encountered in a modern Orthodox ecclesiastical document. This paragraph is an excellent guide for Orthodox Christians when thinking about Islam because it describes Islam in ways that reflect how Muslims themselves understand their faith. At the same time, it also remains true to Orthodox self-understanding by accurately identifying where these two faiths differ from each other.
With respect to Muslim self-understanding, the document highlights the doctrine that Muslims themselves see as the foundation of their faith: belief in the one God. This is what it means when Muslims declare that God is one.
of Christian-Muslim relations, about interfaith study and dialogue. according to the one and only official census taken in Lebanon to date. The Greek Orthodox Christians of Lebanon and the Middle East have also been called Byzantine rite.
Alexandra: We exchanged our wedding vows in Egypt. When Khaled arrived in Germany we got married. As far as legality goes, our marriage was officially recognised through the state ceremony but we also had another ceremony in the mosque so he could be married before God. It was very important to him and I had no problem with it. What was important to me was that our marriage be recognised by the Church.
Alexandra: We signed a notarial marriage contract and in that contract are rules as to what would happen to the children should we separate. We also had to agree on a “morning gift” a gift that the husband gives the wife on the morning of the ceremony. All I asked for was a ring, I am financially secure enough. Khaled: At the mosque, a lot of women tried to talk Alexandra out of the idea but she stood by the ring.
How does your relationship differ to one of other married German couples? Do you have to adapt to a lot of things?
Islam is Egypt’s official state religion and the country’s legislation is primarily based on Islamic law, or Sharia US 15 Sept. However, according to the International Religious Freedom Report , Egyptian family law takes into account the edicts associated with Islam, Judaism and Christianity — the three religions the country officially recognizes US 15 Sept.
As the report states, “Muslim families are subject to Sharia, Christian families to canon law, and Jewish families to Jewish law” ibid. Both civil and religious laws reportedly prevent men who are Coptic Christians from marrying Muslim women ibid.
Christian pastors and Muslim imams have come together to draw up more orthodox Islamic schools of thought and evangelical Christians.
Islam is one of the major world religions with an estimated 1. The name Islam comes from an Arabic term meaning submission , a reference to the central belief that the goal of religion, or of a true believer, is submission to God’s will. Adherents of Islam are referred to as Muslims. Islam teaches that God in Arabic, Allah revealed his direct word and commands for mankind to Muhammad c.
Despite admitting the ministry of prophets earlier than Muhammad, Islam asserts that the primary written record of God’s revelation to humankind is the Qur’an, which Muslims believe to be flawless, immutable, and the final revelation of God. Islam has been termed one of the three Abrahamic religions, along with Christianity and Judaism.
Islam teaches that parts of the Bible have been forgotten, misinterpreted, or distorted by Christians and Jews. Given this perspective, Islam views the Qur’an as corrective of Jewish and Christian scriptures. Muslims do not hold the divinity of Jesus Christ and his unique salvific role, and the teachings of Islam in this respect have been likened to a compound heresy composed of elements of Arianism , Nestorianism , and Docetism ” They did not kill him [Jesus] and they did not crucify him, but it was made to seem so to them Muslims hold that Islam is essentially the same belief as that of all the messengers sent by God to mankind since Adam , with the Qur’an the one definitive text of the Muslim faith codifying the final revelation of God.
Orthodox Christians and Islam in the Postmodern Age
Interfaith marriage , sometimes called a ” mixed marriage “, is marriage between spouses professing different religions. Although interfaith marriages are most often contracted as civil marriages , in some instances they may be contracted as a religious marriage. This depends on religious doctrine of the two party’s religions; some of which prohibit interfaith marriage, but others allow it in limited circumstances. Several major religions are mute on the issue, and still others allow it with requirements for ceremony and custom.
In other words, the parties wishing to marry must date should be reserved with the Church.
Here she offers an introduction to what her life is like as a Coptic Orthodox woman in Egypt. CAIRO — To be a woman in a country where most of her people see women as a disgrace, and at best look at her from a sexual point of view, it is a heavy burden, but even worse when you are a Christian woman. It is hell! To be a Coptic woman, you are under many grievances by society and church alike. Coptic women in Egypt face two dilemmas: gender as a female and religion as Christians.
Sexual harassment can be described as an epidemic that spreads throughout Egypt. According to a study by the United Nations, more than 98 percent of all Egyptian women have been subjected to harassment. But the study did not show how harassment differs from a woman wearing hijab to another who reveals her hair. Most Muslim women in Egypt wear hijab and therefore, the others who do not wear it are most likely Coptic. This means that the Egyptian man thinks he has the right to harass her, simply because he sees her as a promiscuous woman, and a disbeliever.
Erdogan Should Not Erase Turkey’s Christian Past
The article first appeared in Greek in the Cypriot periodical Prasini aspida , November , and in Russian on Pravoslavie. Mixed marriages between Christians and non-Christians began to be permitted on Cyprus after the sanctioning of marriages registered by government agencies, for which, as opposed to church marriages, differences in religion do not serve as an obstacle. Mixed marriages are registered based upon a special document called the Matrimonial Causes Act, accepted in The majority of these women who enter into marriage with Muslims are completely uninformed about the particulars of Islamic traditions and customs of family life.
Such limitations in Muslim law formulated in the Koran are explained by the secondary position of women with respect to men in Islam and the necessity of preventing them from changing religions. On the other hand, the stronger sex, male Muslims, are allowed to marry Kitabiya women, a Christian or a Jewess, because first of all there will be no threat of the woman pressuring the husband to change religions, and secondly, the children will in any case be raised Muslim.
He left Islam and became an Orthodox Christian 20 years later. of Christianity by Muslims, differences between orthodox Islam and the Nation.
The house is surrounded by grapevines, cultivated by the family to produce wine and raki, the clear spirit common across the Balkans. The Gorovecis describe themselves as Muslims, although only one of them fasts during Ramadan. One of their daughters-in-law, Polieda, is an Orthodox Christian but they have welcomed her warmly into their family. To prove the point, she fetches three hard-boiled, coloured Easter eggs, two of them green and one red. This reflects a long tradition of religious coexistence in a country that has a Muslim majority but also sizeable populations of Orthodox Christians and Roman Catholics.
That tradition is one reason whyPope Francis chose Albania for his first European trip outside Italy in September Another sign of the good relations between religions came in January this year. But this tradition of coexistence faces a challenge from the rise of an intolerant strain of Islam among a minority of Albanians, which has even resulted in some travelling to Syria and Iraq to fight for ISIS, the Islamist militant group that controls parts of both countries.
So far , the tensions raised by radicalisation in Albania have been confined to vitriolic online debates, with some Albanians condemning any display of Muslim identity and others accusing them of not understanding the Islamic faith. But analysts warn that unless Albania tackles intolerant rhetoric on all sides, it could lead to greater polarisation. He denies belonging to ISIS, says he never went to Syria and complains about being monitored by the police.
Orthodox Christian Women Vs. Muslim Women
On a blustery weekend this past February, 26 people met at the Cenacle Retreat House in Chicago to reflect on the religious dimensions of marriage. Nothing unusual about that. What was unusual about this gathering was that it brought together Christians and Muslims who are married, engaged or seriously considering marriage.
As the name suggests, Hagia Sophia is a Christian church. when it was converted into a mosque during the Ottoman Empire until that date, that was it. Let Muslims and (Orthodox) Christians and Catholics pay a visit, let all.
This weekend marks 20 years since the Srebrenica massacre — the killing of 7,, Muslim men and boys by Bosnian Serb forces in a Bosnian town that had been designated a United Nations safe haven. The war was fought largely along ethno-religious lines , among predominantly Orthodox Christian Serbs, Muslim Bosniaks and Catholic Croats. The massacre continues to stir political passions today. On Wednesday, Russia vetoed a U. And a Pew Research Center survey of Muslims conducted in late found indications of both understanding and tension between Muslims and Christians in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Amid these signs of interfaith tolerance and engagement, however, community divisions remain. Similarly, few Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina are comfortable with the idea of their son or daughter marrying outside the faith. Elsewhere in the region, openness to marrying outside the faith is higher. Bosnia-Herzegovina had a high level of social hostilities involving religion in , the most recent year analyzed, according to an ongoing series of reports by the Pew Research Center.
2018 Report on International Religious Freedom: Egypt
In the Orthodox Church it is not permitted for an Orthodox Christian to be married to an individual who has not been baptized, regardless of whether they are of the Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, or other faith. While there is generally no exception to this rule, especially in the USA, you may wish to discuss your particular circumstance with your parish priest, who can offer specific guidance tailored to your individual situation. Especially against the Jewish people from whom all Christianity is derived.
The practice of the Church is not a matter of discrimination any more than the practice of the Jewish faith, which only permits practicing Jews to celebrate their bar mitzvah, or the practice of the Buddhist faith, which allows only practicing Buddhists to enter Buddhist monastic orders, are cases of discrimination. It is a matter of sacramentology, as well as common sense.
Rec date: Sep 19, ; Acc date: Oct 27, ; Pub date: Oct 31, Copyright: Orthodox Christians%, Armenian Orthodox Christians% and others% . Azerbaijan is Muslim regardless of the degree of religiosity. Islam in.
This dissertation examines movements between harmonic and antagonistic modalities of Muslim-Christian relations in a context of increasing religious plurality. In Gondar, Ethiopia, an educational and symbolic center of Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, the Muslim minority has recently sought increased public parity with the Christian majority, taking advantage of the unprecedented provisions for religious freedom in Ethiopia’s constitution.
These developments helped fuel an episode of open antagonism, and some violence, between Muslims and Orthodox Christians in They also work to manage latent antagonistic potentials through religious codes of silence, and are able to tolerate a mixture of affinity and vague antagonistic feeling for the religious other. This dissertation argues that religious rituals in Gondar have a role both in facilitating mutual recognition across religious boundaries and “revealing” latent antagonisms, thus fueling interreligious conflict.
The potential that is realized in any given situation depends in part on how Muslim and Orthodox rituals intersect—that is, how events and human actions bring different rituals onto the same scene, and whether or not this co-presence is seen as subversive to the high values the rituals perform. The project of interreligious coexistence in Gondar involves not only negotiating the co-presence of individuals with different religious identities, but also negotiating the co-presence of different ritual complexes.
Relations between different ritual complexes are important because rituals have macrocosmic entailments, transvaluing the here-now to a higher scale, bringing actors into more direct relation with higher values, and, at times, linking lived time-space to distant historical events. In Gondar, ritual’s propensity to link up with higher scales can evoke imaginaries of both macro-recognition and macro-conflict, typifying the religious other as a primordial friend or archetypical foe.
Skip to main content. UC San Diego. Email Facebook Twitter. Abstract This dissertation examines movements between harmonic and antagonistic modalities of Muslim-Christian relations in a context of increasing religious plurality.